Gender-Based Violence in the Wari and Post-Wari Era of the Andes

Authored by: Tiffiny A. Tung

The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict

Print publication date:  November  2013
Online publication date:  December  2013

Print ISBN: 9780415842198
eBook ISBN: 9781315883366
Adobe ISBN: 9781134677979


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Social norms regarding how men or women are to be treated can have a powerful effect on each sex's health profile. If there are strong social pressures for men to engage in military action or defend a community, then they are likely to exhibit greater frequencies of violence-related injuries and have lower life expectancies than women. This may also mean that men are targeted for attack in village raids or community brawls. If a community views women as subordinate, then they may be treated harshly and be physically punished when their behaviours are deemed inappropriate. Violence targeted against men or women specifically because oftheir sex and the roles associated with them is a form of gender-based violence. By gender-based violence, I mean physical harm against an individual or group based on one's gender identity (Wies and Haldane 2011). I agree with Wies and Haldane (2011) that gender based violence can occur in the home or larger community and, importantly, that this category of identity-based violence is condoned by the state or the community. That social condoning of violence towards a particular group is what brings it into being, and each act of violence then has the potential to further normalize it, ensuring its perpetuation.

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