The Heyneman/Loxley Effect

Three decades of debate

Authored by: Stephen Heyneman

Routledge Handbook of International Education and Development

Print publication date:  August  2015
Online publication date:  July  2015

Print ISBN: 9780415747547
eBook ISBN: 9781315797007
Adobe ISBN: 9781317752240


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While the lower performance of students from particular ethnic and income groups and geographical regions was a long-demonstrated outcome of standardised testing (Francher and Rutherford 2012; Stodolsky 1997; Ogbu 1991), the application of computers to the question was new in the 1960s. The report of James S. Coleman et al. (1966) was among the first surveys of a nationally representative population and the first to combine multiple factors into discrete categories representing those from out-of-school and within school influences. 1 Conclusions from this report were stunning because they ran counter to long-held assumptions. Gamoran and Long (2007) quote Seymour Martin Lipset as remarking to Daniel Moynihan that Coleman had found that “schools make no difference, families make the difference.”

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