Twins of 1713

Energy security and sustainability in Germany

Authored by: R. Andreas Kraemer

Handbook of Transitions to Energy and Climate Security

Print publication date:  November  2016
Online publication date:  November  2016

Print ISBN: 9781857437454
eBook ISBN: 9781315723617
Adobe ISBN:


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Energy security and sustainability are twins, born in 1713. As key concepts they were explained and made practicable through management rules in the seminal ‘Sylvicultura oeconomica’ by Hans Carl von Carlowitz, and have guided policy-making ever since. 1 As conceptual foundations of Germany’s present-day ‘Energiewende’ – the country’s green energy shift away from fossil and nuclear energy towards renewable energy supply – energy security and sustainability are topical and ever more relevant for many countries.

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