(Un)Regulating shadow education in West Asia

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey

Authored by: Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze

Routledge International Handbook of Schools and Schooling in Asia

Print publication date:  May  2018
Online publication date:  May  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138908499
eBook ISBN: 9781315694382
Adobe ISBN:


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Using Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey as case studies, this chapter examines how governments in West Asia address the regulation of private tutoring and the possible rationales behind each of the respective governments’ policies. By comparing policies across the four countries, this chapter shows regional trends and highlights the educational and policy implications of regulating / not regulating private tutoring in the respective states. This chapter also draws on scholarly literature, legal documents, codes of conduct and strategic educational plans.

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