Development and Livelihoods for Disaster Risk Reduction Including Climate Change Adaptation

Authored by: Bob Alexander

The Routledge Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction Including Climate Change Adaptation

Print publication date:  April  2017
Online publication date:  September  2017

Print ISBN: 9781138924567
eBook ISBN: 9781315684260
Adobe ISBN: 9781317408659


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People’s livelihoods play important roles in enabling self-protection toward addressing their everyday, seasonal, and extreme risks (Alexander et al. 2006; Cannon 2008; Twigg 2015). In the mid-1990s, a framework for sustainable livelihoods (SL) was developed to address these risks. Concepts, development, and contributions of SL approaches are explained in Carney (2002), Sanderson (2012), Solesbury (2003), and Twigg (2015). Likewise, the relationship between development processes and the reduction, creation, or exacerbation of the vulnerability context underlying these risks is explained in Cardona (2004), DFID (2004), Hewitt (1995), IFRC (2002), UNDP (2004), and Wisner et al. (2012). Recent discussion has focused on how creeping environmental problems such as climate change are contributing to changes in hazards and vulnerability with increasing future uncertainty (Kelman et al. 2015; Kelman and Gaillard 2010; Mercer 2010; Schipper 2009). And discussions of the need for an adaptive approach (effectively revisiting much earlier work on adjusting socially to reduce vulnerability) resulted from this focus on the potential effects of development and environmental change on risk and opportunities (DKKV 2011; Jones et al. 2010).

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