Educational effectiveness and improvement research and educational policy

The rise of performance-based reforms 1

Authored by: David Reynolds , Anthony Kelly , Christopher Chapman

The Routledge International Handbook of Educational Effectiveness and Improvement

Print publication date:  August  2015
Online publication date:  August  2015

Print ISBN: 9780415534437
eBook ISBN: 9781315679488
Adobe ISBN: 9781317394327


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This chapter begins with the premise that systems of educational organisation are run in three ways (Anderson, 2005):

through ‘regulatory’ responsibility, in terms of adherence to rules and regulations, etc. (what can be called administrative accountability);

through adherence to ‘professional’ norms, values, and standards (professional accountability); and

through ‘results-driven’ accountability related to the effectiveness and efficiency of the educational system in generating desired outcomes (performance, or outcome, accountability).

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