Language Awareness and the Teaching of Listening and Speaking

Authored by: Christine C. M. Goh

The Routledge Handbook of Language Awareness

Print publication date:  October  2017
Online publication date:  November  2017

Print ISBN: 9781138937048
eBook ISBN: 9781315676494
Adobe ISBN:


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The teaching of second language (L2) listening and speaking has traditionally been practice-focused. Students participate in a variety of activities such as communicative tasks and listening comprehension exercises to practise their listening and speaking skills. In many classrooms, the two skills are practised in an integrated manner, typically with speaking taking precedence over listening. The teaching and learning goal of practice activities is predominantly on product, that is to say, how well learners can understand spoken input and express themselves, and their achievements are observed in degrees of success of comprehension for listening and fluency and accuracy for speaking. There is, however, another aspect of listening and speaking (oracy) instruction that shifts teachers’ and learners’ attention from product to process. This is the development of learners’ awareness about factors that influence their performance and how to manage these factors. A process-oriented approach to L2 oracy instruction has received far less attention in the classroom.

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