Example-Based Learning

Authored by: Tamara van Gog , Nikol Rummel

International Handbook of the Learning Sciences

Print publication date:  April  2018
Online publication date:  April  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138670594
eBook ISBN: 9781315617572
Adobe ISBN:


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Example-based learning is a form of observational learning and can be defined as learning by following a demonstration of how to perform a to-be-learned task or skill. Observational learning is a very natural way of learning that even young infants display (Bandura, 1977, 1986). It can be contrasted with learning by doing, defined as attempting to perform the task or skill oneself without assistance or instruction. In contemporary learning environments example-based learning is often facilitated by technology; for instance, video examples are widely implemented in e-learning environments and (adaptive) instructional systems. Research on example-based learning is conducted by researchers reflecting the variety of disciplines that constitute the learning sciences, including cognitive science, educational psychology, instructional design, and computer science. Research on example-based learning is typically (though not necessarily) experimental in nature.

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