The Pragmatic Euroscepticism of Scandinavia

Authored by: Julie Hassing Nielsen

The Routledge Handbook of Euroscepticism

Print publication date:  July  2017
Online publication date:  July  2017

Print ISBN: 9781138784741
eBook ISBN: 9781315464015
Adobe ISBN:


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Scandinavians are European pragmatists (Schuck and Vreese 2013; Bäckman et al., 2015; Nielsen and Franklin, 2017). While both Denmark and Sweden have rejected full membership of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), Denmark furthermore maintains three opt-outs on other salient EU areas. Meanwhile, Norwegians have rejected membership twice via referendum, yet the country remains a close EU partner through various parallel agreements (see Chapter 11 in this Handbook). Still, the Scandinavian pragmatists remain devoted Europeans (e.g. Knudsen 2008), and Scandinavian Euroscepticism is best characterized as being soft rather than hard.

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