Developmental trajectories of HPA–HPG dual-axes coupling

Implications for social neuroendocrinology

Authored by: Ellen Zakreski , Andrew Richard Dismukes , Andrea Tountas , Jenny Mai Phan , Shannin Nicole Moody , Elizabeth Anne Shirtcliff

Routledge International Handbook of Social Neuroendocrinology

Print publication date:  October  2018
Online publication date:  October  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138711440
eBook ISBN: 9781315200439
Adobe ISBN:


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The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis are associated with numerous health and behavioral outcomes, yet emerging research suggests that HPA–HPG interactions may impact health and behavior beyond either axis alone. While once thought to inhibit each other, a dual-axis view suggests that HPA–HPG associations may actually be flexible depending on salient contextual factors. We review studies of cross-axis ‘coupling’ at different ages and in different contexts in order to demonstrate the robustness of this phenomenon, variance by developmental stage, sex differences and implications for psychopathology.

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