Enhancing Evolution: The Transhuman Case for Gene Doping

Authored by: Andy Miah

Routledge Handbook of Sport and Exercise Systems Genetics

Print publication date:  April  2019
Online publication date:  March  2019

Print ISBN: 9781138504851
eBook ISBN: 9781315146287
Adobe ISBN:


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The conventional view on gene doping is that it should be treated like other forms of doping, both in scientific and ethical terms, as evidenced by its inclusion within the World Anti-Doping Code back in 2003 (World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2003). The basis for this position is that, like other forms of doping, gene doping involves the use of medical technologies for nontherapeutic biological modifications, as described in WADA’s initial terminology banning gene doping, which described it as:

M3: Gene Doping

The non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to enhance athlete performance.

(WADA, 2003)

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