The helping hand in increasing Nepal’s urban seismic resilience

Authored by: Amod Mani Dixit , Ranjan Dhungel , Manish Raj Gouli , Ramesh Guragain , Surya Narayan Shrestha , Suman Pradhan , Surya Bhakta Sangachhe , Sujan Raj Adhikari , Nisha Shrestha , Kapil Bhattarai , Pramod Khatiwada , Bishnu Hadkhale , Ayush Baskota , Rita Thakuri , Hanna Ruszczyk

The Routledge Handbook of Urban Resilience

Print publication date:  December  2019
Online publication date:  November  2019

Print ISBN: 9781138583597
eBook ISBN: 9780429506666
Adobe ISBN:


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The devastation of the 1988 M6.6 Udaypur earthquake was the start of efforts towards urban resilience in Nepal. In 1994, a unique national building code was created. The National Society for Earthquake Technology – Nepal (NSET), established in 1994, started implementing urban resilience programs in collaboration with municipalities. The initial years were difficult – in 2012, the unofficial rate of formal compliance with the national building code in Nepal was a meagre 21 per cent (NSET 2016a). By 2017, in 30 cities supported by NSET the rate of compliance skyrocketed to 62 per cent (NSET 2016a). The elements of success for implementing the building code in cities included a combination of working with the national government, slowly guiding the local authorities to understanding how to implement the National Building Code, and education and awareness raising amongst stakeholders, including homeowners, masons, and engineers.

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