Researching Race, Culture, and Difference: Epistemological Challenges and Possibilities

Authored by: James A. Banks

Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research

Print publication date:  April  2006
Online publication date:  January  2012

Print ISBN: 9780805859324
eBook ISBN: 9780203874769
Adobe ISBN: 9781135283315


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The multicultural education movement, which emerged out of the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, seeks to reform schools, colleges, and universities so that students from diverse racial, ethnic, language, and social-class groups will experience educational equality (Banks & Banks, 2004). The knowledge about these groups that is institutionalized within mainstream institutions — which Banks (1993) referred to as “mainstream academic knowledge” (p. 7; See Table 44-1)—is a major factor that helps to maintain the status quo and justifies structural inequality and institutionalized discrimination.

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