Science and Social Studies

Authored by: Thomas E. Scruggs , Margo A. Mastropieri , Lisa Marshak

Handbook of Special Education

Print publication date:  April  2011
Online publication date:  May  2011

Print ISBN: 9780415800716
eBook ISBN: 9780203837306
Adobe ISBN: 9781136869624


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Students with high-incidence cognitive disabilities— including learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, and intellectual disabilities—commonly exhibit difficulties with all aspects of school learning. Some aspects, such as literacy, have had significant research attention over the years (Mastropieri et al., 2009), perhaps because literacy skills are seen as foundational to other types of academic learning, and because literacy deficits are often a primary cause for referral to special education (Hallahan, Lloyd, Kauffman, Weiss, & Martinez, 2005).

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