Learning and Violence

Authored by: Shahrzad Mojab , Bethany J. Osborne

The Routledge International Handbook of Learning

Print publication date:  December  2011
Online publication date:  May  2012

Print ISBN: 9780415571302
eBook ISBN: 9780203357385
Adobe ISBN: 9781136598562


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In this chapter, we define violence as physical, psychological, economic, political and all other structural forms that intend to harm, denigrate, exclude and obstruct an individual or a group of people to function freely, fully and without fear in society. Feminist scholars, in particular critical, anti-racist and socialist, have expanded the definition of violence to include a wide range of acts, attitudes, ethics, morality, policies and social historical structures. These include patriarchy, colonialism, capitalism and imperialism (Bannerji et al., 2001; Burstow, 2003; Enloe, 1988, 1989; Gowen and Bartlett, 1997; Hajdukowski-Ahmed et al., 2008; Mojab, 2000; Mojab and Abdo, 2004; Mojab and Mcdonald, 2008; Mohanty, 2003; Rebick, 2005: UN, 2010). In our analysis, we understand all these forms of violence as a universal form of gender power relations with the propensity to develop particular characteristics based on norms, values, traditions, cultures, modes of social relations and historical epoch.

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