Examining Black Male Identity Through a Raced, Classed, and Gendered Lens

Critical Race Theory and the Intersectionality of the Black Male Experience

Authored by: Tyrone C. Howard , Rema Reynolds

Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education

Print publication date:  March  2013
Online publication date:  September  2013

Print ISBN: 9780415899956
eBook ISBN: 9780203155721
Adobe ISBN: 9781136581410


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It has been well established in the professional literature that Black 1 males face myriad challenges in the nation’s schools and society writ large (Anderson, 2008). The academic achievement and social outcomes of Black males in PreK-12 and postsecondary schools have been the subject of a number of scholarly works over the past three decades (Duncan, 2002; Harper & Harris, 2010; Howard, 2008, 2010; Jackson, 2007; Mincy, 2006; Noguera, 2008; Polite & Davis, 1999). A look at outcome data reveals how schools have fallen terribly short in engaging Black males academically, and providing the appropriate structures to foster their maximum performance. A cursory summary of these data would reveal that less than half of Black males graduate within four years from U.S. high schools, compared to 78 percent for White males (Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010). Reading and math scores of Black males at the elementary and middle school levels have increased over the past decade; however, they still significantly trail their White, Latino, and Asian male counterparts in disturbing ways (U.S. Department of Education, 2009a, 2009b).

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