Developing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Models to Prevent and Manage Learning and Behavior Problems

Authored by: Kathleen Lynne Lane , Wendy Peia Oakes , Holly Mariah Menzies , Pamela J. Harris

The Routledge International Companion to Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

Print publication date:  August  2012
Online publication date:  October  2012

Print ISBN: 9780415584630
eBook ISBN: 9780203117378
Adobe ISBN: 9781136303111


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When administrators, 1 teachers, and other school personnel are asked to define what it means for a student to have an emotional or behavioral disorder (EBD), the first images and thoughts are often reflective of externalizing behaviors. These specific behaviors include verbal and physical aggression, noncompliance, bullying, and coercive behaviors (Lane et al. in press b; Walker et al. 2004). It is not surprising that educators focus on these dimensions of EBD, as these behaviors clearly impede the instructional process for many teachers and interrupt the learning experiences of all students (Lane 2007). Yet, the construct of EBD also includes students with internalizing behaviors with characteristics such as anxiety, social withdrawal, depression, and somatic complaints (Achenbach 1991). Although internalizing behaviors are often less recognized as they tend not to impede instruction, they are no less important, as they have serious negative implications for the students who suffer from them (Crick et al. 2002; Morris et al. 2002).

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