Authored by: Carrie Heeter

The Routledge Companion to Video Game Studies

Print publication date:  December  2013
Online publication date:  January  2014

Print ISBN: 9780415533324
eBook ISBN: 9780203114261
Adobe ISBN: 9781136290510


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Passive, cooperative, and expressive are constructs traditionally associated with females, and by extension, femininity in western culture (Stets & Burke, 2006). Gender identity develops over time and relates to the extent to which a person perceives themselves as conforming to socially-constructed ideals and expectations of masculine or feminine in the world (Stets & Burke, 2006). Cultural expectations have changed such that people are more tolerant of males and females each performing roles and meanings associated with femininity and masculinity in different situations and different points in their lives. Thus, the socially-constructed ideals of femininity overlap with but are no longer synonymous with the female gender.

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