Empowering Teachers to Design Learning Resources with Metacognitive Interface Elements

Authored by: Judy Kay , Sabina Kleitman , Roger Azevedo

Handbook of Design in Educational Technology

Print publication date:  July  2013
Online publication date:  June  2013

Print ISBN: 9780415807340
eBook ISBN: 9780203075227
Adobe ISBN: 9781135118969


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Metacognition refers to the executive processes of reflecting on and regulating one’s own thinking, that is, ‘thinking about thinking’ (Flavell, 1979). These processes, central to learning, are one of the three fundamentals of self-regulated learning (Schraw et al., 2006). This makes it important for most learning contexts and especially for the many uses of digital learning resources for independent and lifelong learning (Azevedo et al., 2012; Kay, 2008). Given its importance, it is unsurprising that there is a large body of research about metacognition; for example, see reviews (Dunlosky & Bjork, 2008; Dunlosky & Lipko, 2007). These provide powerful insights into how real-world learning can be improved. This metacognition research also has the potential to serve as a foundation for the design of interface elements that can improve learning and be useful in many different learning resources.

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