Fluoride in the Environment and Its Toxicological Effects

Authored by: A.K. Gupta , S. Ayoob

Fluoride in Drinking Water

Print publication date:  April  2016
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498756525
eBook ISBN: 9781498756532
Adobe ISBN:


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Fluorine is the most electronegative and the most reactive element present in the periodic table. It is always found in the nature with the combination of some other elements because of its reactivity. Fluoride is a naturally occurring, widely distributed element, and it is found in varying amounts in minerals, rocks, gases from volcanoes, and so forth. Anthropogenic sources such as coal-fired power plants; aluminum smelters; phosphate fertilizer plants; glass, brick, and tile works; and plastics factories are also responsible for the increase in the level of the fluorine in the atmosphere.1,2 As stated in previous chapters, human beings are benefited when the fluoride uptake is of an appropriate quantity. If the fluoride uptake is lower than the minimum amount or more than the upper limit, it can adversely affect human health. Studies have shown that apart from human beings, plants, and animals also experience toxicological issues when they are exposed to fluoride. Drinking water serves as the major source of fluoride in humans; however, other environmental sources also contribute to it.2

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