Simple Correspondence Analysis

Authored by: Pierre Cazes

Visualization and Verbalization of Data

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466589803
eBook ISBN: 9781466589810
Adobe ISBN:


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Correspondence analysis (CA) was introduced by Jean-Paul Benzécri (Benzécri et al., 1973) in the early 1960s to study contingency tables crossing the set of categories I of a qualitative variable with the set J of a second qualitative variable. Afterwards, this technique was extended to study homogeneous tables of positive numbers: tables of ranks, preferences, percentages, ratings, presences/absences (0/1), and so on. Lastly, methods of coding were developed to analyse any type of data, through the use of complete disjunctive coding (or dummy variable coding, also called ‘crisp coding’) and fuzzy coding (codage flou in French; see Chapter 15 by Greenacre).

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