Authored by: Pradyot Patnaik

Handbook of Environmental Analysis

Print publication date:  August  2017
Online publication date:  August  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498745611
eBook ISBN: 9781315151946
Adobe ISBN:


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Sulfide (S2−) is a bivalent monoanion produced from the decomposition of metal sulfide salts. It occurs in groundwater, hot springs, and wastewater. It is also formed from the bacterial reduction of sulfate. Sulfide salts in solid waste in contact with an acid can produce hydrogen sulfide, H2S, which is highly toxic. In an aqueous sample, sulfide may be present as dissolved H2S and HS, dissolved metallic sulfide, and acid-soluble metallic sulfide contained in suspended particles. All these soluble and insoluble sulfides and dissolved H2S and HS together are termed as total sulfide. The sulfide remaining after the removal of suspended solids is termed the dissolved sulfide. Copper and silver sulfides are insoluble even under acidic conditions. Therefore, these two sulfides are not determined in the following tests.

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