The Supervisor/Manager as a Teacher

Authored by: Herman Koren , Alma Mary Anderson

Management and Supervisory Practices for Environmental Professionals

Print publication date:  February  2021
Online publication date:  February  2021

Print ISBN: 9780367647049
eBook ISBN: 9781003133100
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781003133100-3

 

Abstract

When you have successfully completed this lesson, you should:

Understand that it is necessary to establish the “Competencies” needed by employees to carry out their appropriate work assignments prior to the time that you develop training programs and training methods.

Know that employees learn even if they are not being properly trained and that when this learning process is poor, it may have adverse effects.

Understand the reasons for providing training to personnel under one’s supervision.

Recognize that you, the supervisor/manager, are responsible for training.

Understand the difference between training for a specific task and developing a training program for overall improvement or advancement within the firm or organization.

Understand how people learn in order to teach individuals their job and how to improve performance on the job.

Recognize that the development of an individual can occur both on the job and off the job.

Know some effective methods for promoting employee development.

Recognize appropriate training methods.

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The Supervisor/Manager as a Teacher

Learning Objectives

When you have successfully completed this lesson, you should:

  1. Understand that it is necessary to establish the “Competencies” needed by employees to carry out their appropriate work assignments prior to the time that you develop training programs and training methods.
  2. Know that employees learn even if they are not being properly trained and that when this learning process is poor, it may have adverse effects.
  3. Understand the reasons for providing training to personnel under one’s supervision.
  4. Recognize that you, the supervisor/manager, are responsible for training.
  5. Understand the difference between training for a specific task and developing a training program for overall improvement or advancement within the firm or organization.
  6. Understand how people learn in order to teach individuals their job and how to improve performance on the job.
  7. Recognize that the development of an individual can occur both on the job and off the job.
  8. Know some effective methods for promoting employee development.
  9. Recognize appropriate training methods.

Fundamental Management Information

Most training is task oriented to solve specific types of problems. Some training is more broadly oriented. In any case, in order to resolve large or small problems it is necessary to teach people how to think and how to act in an appropriate manner. This can only be achieved by establishing first the Best Practices that should be utilized to create programs, enhance existing programs, and solve problems. It is then necessary to determine the competencies needed by the individuals to carry out their work assignments.

Competency is the ability to carry out tasks in job performance. They are taught in various training sessions whether they are used for making inspections or designing a whole new program to prevent environmental degradation while protecting and promoting the health of citizens. It is therefore necessary to determine the scope and nature of the competencies needed by professional personnel to perform their duties, at a minimum in a satisfactory manner, and hopefully in a superior or outstanding manner.

Provision of appropriate human resources to carry out the goals and objectives of the organization is based on recruitment, selection, training, and performance appraisal. Recruitment and selection of personnel have already been discussed; performance evaluation will be discussed in a later lesson.

Training

Training is the process of developing qualities in people that will enable them to be more productive. It consists of determining training needs (information and/or skill areas) for further development of the individual and can be accomplished by watching for/detecting deficiencies in existing operations, direct feedback from employees, and the use of futuristic thinking, designing a program to meet needs, administering the training program, and evaluating the results.

Development

Development is the concept of enhancing and nurturing of the skills, knowledge, attitude, and enthusiasm of the individual, utilizing a mentor to work closely with the individual; increasingly more responsibility for programs supervised closely by the mentor; the information gained from failures as well as from successes and working on new programming or existing programs; teaching basic and advanced skills of management and supervision; and rewarding the individual appropriately when the person’s work is superior or especially when it’s outstanding.

Motivation

Motivation can be enhanced through the learning process related to proper stimulus, and adequate response and positive reinforcement when things are done well. In all cases, the person who is learning should be able to give feedback as well as practice the appropriate skills. Practicing the skills over and over again will help the individual become proficient and happy in the work assignment, and happiness leads to motivation.

Training Process

The training process can be carried out by use of on-the-job training, an apprenticeship process, mentorships, internships, and stimulation. Methods of teaching include lecture, group discussion, programmed instruction, computer-assisted programmed instruction, audiovisual techniques, behavior modeling using and practicing proper behavior, case studies, role playing, and practical exercises using actual work experiences.

Management Development

Management development focuses on general decision-making and human relations skills. Development involves general management skills, usually conducted off-site for several days, and focuses on leadership, interpersonal interactions, socialization, and career orientation.

Performance evaluation and training are examples of the individual using management development skills plus evaluation techniques as a basis for teaching, in order to help the employee improve. To make this process work, the following must occur:

  1. The employee must want to improve.
  2. The supervisor/manager or higher-level manager must use positive motivational techniques to help the person improve.
  3. The focus of the training should be on the skills needed or the problem to be resolved for the present and future rather than the employee’s attitude or personality.
  4. The session should be well planned and simple.

Lesson Discussion

I. Determining Competencies Needed by Employees

A substantial part of the supervisor/manager’s job is to teach. A supervisor/manager imparts knowledge and skills to the employee. As a teacher, the supervisor/manager strives to increase the speed and efficiency of employees. If the employees are well trained they can, therefore, function in a satisfactory manner. The most important part of this training consists of the intensity of the supervisor/manager’s teaching, the frequency of the teaching, and how recent the supervisor/manager’s own personal experience in a given area has been, imparting this knowledge to the employees.

II. Employees Learn without Being Trained

Employees will learn whether you train them or not. Unfortunately, the untrained employee tends to learn the wrong things. It is far more difficult to correct the errors associated with initial poor learning than to take an individual who has no experience at all and train him or her in a proper manner.

 

The supervisor/manager is the most important individual in this training process since he or she is directly responsible for the employees and has the most intimate contact with them.

III. Reasons for Training

Training is necessary in all situations. The type of training varies with the complexity of the job, the experience of the individual, and the ability of the individual and the supervisor/manager who is training the employee. Training is frequently needed when a supervisor/manager or higher-level manager recognizes that

  • There are excessive absences; too many individuals either quitting or being fired.
  • There is a large number of complaints and grievances being filed.
  • There is repeated lateness.
  • Morale is poor.
  • The accident rate is excessive.
  • The level of production is low.
  • The work produced is of poor quality.

IV. The Supervisor’s/Manager’s Responsibility for Training

Training new employees and retraining of older employees, which is typically based on specific competencies needed to perform tasks, is a primary responsibility of the supervisor/manager. Although the organization may send the employee to a variety of specialized schools, or the employees may receive training in technical schools, colleges, or high schools, it is still the responsibility of the first-line supervisor/manager to make sure that the specific training or the specific task is carried out in such a way that the employee is able to work efficiently and in a confident manner.

Because of this responsibility, the good supervisor/manager usually is a good teacher and the poor supervisor/manager is likewise usually a poor teacher.

 

A good teacher prepares in advance and then presents the material in an appropriate manner. Next, the supervisor/manager teaches by using demonstrations, illustrations, and experiments where helpful. This allows the individual employee to get a good comprehensive view of what is being taught.

The supervisor/manager allows ample time to participate in each of the job tasks. Errors are made and corrected, and are considered part of the educational process. Finally, the supervisor/manager examines or tests the individual employee in an informal manner to assure that the employee fully understands the skills previously taught.

In job training, unfortunately, many supervisor/managers do not do an adequate job of preparation and attempt to rush the teaching process. Perhaps the supervisor/manager will overuse visual aids and expect the employee never to make mistakes. Of course, these approaches are poor and lead to future problems.

V. The Nature of Training and Developing and Its Value

Training consists of the first-line supervisor/manager utilizing the skills and knowledge which he/she has acquired in an informal and formal manner to upgrade or enhance the skills and knowledge of the employee. Each of us is a sum total of our experiences. We are what we learn from formal situations, our environment, watching others, and many other situations in life. Unfortunately, when employees are not formally trained, they have a tendency to develop their own guidelines which may, in effect, be very poor.

VI. Differences between Training and Development

Training is preparing an employee for a specific job and a specific type of acceptable performance on the job. Training emphasizes special learning and skills necessary to carry out the specific job. Basically, training simply teaches the employee “how to do” and not “how to think.”

Development is how the individual grows and improves in a variety of areas. It does not focus on a specific skill or particular job but on the employee’s general growth within the organization as an individual. Development is more often applied to supervisor/manager and higher-level management personnel rather than to employees unless the employees have supervisor/manager potential, a possible indication that the organization is grooming him or her for higher-level positions.

VII. Learning Theory and Training for Adults

The learning process for adults is somewhat different than for children. Most adults learn from experience and also recognize that they need to relate to others and compromise in order to achieve their goals. Each person is unique and brings to the educational process an important set of previously learned material, experiences, values, and prejudices. However, adult behavior can be modified and adult education can not only provide skills to individuals but also mature them. Adults must be given more time to process information and learn skills, but typically once this is done, it remains with them far longer than it does with children. Adults must recognize that they may have vast untapped resources of creative potential which can not only help them in the job but also help them in their futures. Adults may have poor habits which will have to be corrected in order to make the individual a good employee.

The ability to communicate effectively is of greatest significance to the adult and must be taught to individuals who are having difficulties in approaching work assignments as well as being with their fellow professionals. All adults can learn to communicate better verbally and in writing. Trainers must recognize that adults may be insecure in learning situations and therefore need to receive personal attention and thoughtful assistance when needed. Learning must be accompanied by continuous repetition for many people. Ultimately not only adults, but all people want to be fulfilled and seek happiness, and this can be achieved in a work situation when the individual is properly prepared and duly recognized when he/she has not only met the objectives of the task but also exceeded them.

Learning can achieve behavioral change and consists of the following steps:

  1. reading and understanding the objectives of a given skill or job;
  2. surveying the entire job rapidly to get an overview of what is occurring;
  3. looking at and absorbing material on a variety of visual aids;
  4. being shown the job slowly by the supervisor/manager;
  5. determining what questions you have concerning the various aspects of the task or job;
  6. trying to answer these questions yourself;
  7. asking the supervisor/manager questions to determine how accurate you are;
  8. attempting a job or task under the direct observation of the supervisor/manager;
  9. having the supervisor/manager make necessary corrections in the work;
  10. rereading the material and once again developing the kinds of questions which will help make the job more understandable;
  11. practice at the job or task;
  12. continued observation by the supervisor/manager and critical comments;
  13. self-testing by the individual;
  14. rewarding yourself for carrying out your job successfully;
  15. the supervisor/manager rewarding the employee by complimenting him or her or some other means of reward.

VIII. Teaching Suggestions

In order for the supervisor/manager to be a good teacher, he or she must first be a good student. The supervisor/manager must be motivated, willing to learn, willing to practice various tasks and jobs, and willing to reinforce individual learning with additional study. Also, the supervisor/manager must have the ability to put an employee at ease and indicate to the employee that he or she is not expected to be perfect the first, second, or third time. The employee should be shown that learning is a succession of steps with reinforcement along the way until the individual is able to handle the task properly.

A good teacher should know the subject well and offer the students clear, accurate, and complete information. Good teaching can be accomplished by

  1. Having the undivided attention from the individuals being taught. This means, where appropriate, a separate room should be provided away from other activity for the teaching process.
  2. Having equipment, materials, pictures, or models for demonstration purposes.
  3. Having all of the material for instruction ready at the beginning of the lesson to avoid distraction. Materials should not be passed out as the instructor is talking since it is very disruptive. If handout material is used, it should be brief and specific.
  4. Creating a desire for the learner to want to know. It should never be assumed that the employee will be interested in what is being taught.
  5. Creating interest by finding out what is appealing or challenging, by establishing a sense of pride in accomplishment, and by providing the employee with a chance to gain approval from the supervisor/manager and upper management. A job can be either interesting or monotonous. It is up to the supervisor/manager to present it in an interesting manner.

The supervisor/manager should start with the known and lead into the unknown, describe existing procedures, introduce new procedures, and try to relate them to existing procedures. All technical terms should be defined in such a way that they are readily understandable. To help give the individual a sense of accomplishment, teach the simple things first, and then lead up to more complicated material. It is important for the supervisor/manager to give the overall view of the problem. Although the individual employee may be working within one specific task or role, this will allow the employee to know where he or she fits into the overall picture.

Never ramble, but speak slowly, directly, and clearly; give reasons for each step in the process. People are more apt to follow reasoning and more apt to do an effective job if they know why they are doing it. If the information is more interesting, it will be retained longer.

A procedure or method may be demonstrated by the supervisor/manager, or it can be demonstrated by someone else while the supervisor/manager describes it. This should always be performed correctly and accurately. The student must see each step and each detail, and the supervisor/manager should go as slowly as needed, repeating each step as often as possible or as often as needed. Discussion, especially questions, should be encouraged. It is essential that the employee ask questions as needed. Answering ten questions is better than having a serious accident or incident occur at a later date.

After each procedure has been explained and demonstrated, the employee should have the opportunity to demonstrate the procedure step by step and explain the procedure as if he or she were the teacher.

 

Emotions play an important part in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, the supervisor/manager should always maintain an enthusiastic interest. This can be done by using jokes, telling stories, or showing the value the individual may get out of a certain task or role. The desire to understand and know should be emphasized.

The individual should respect and not fear the supervisor/manager or teacher. Respect can be earned by doing a good job of teaching and by giving praise when praise is deserved. It can also be earned by giving constructive criticism when needed in a proper manner. Periodically, the supervisor/manager should check to see how well the information is retained and used. Constant checks of the various tasks and techniques can be made during the actual performance of these tasks.

Setting a good example is also important. The good supervisor/manager is a good example. People learn both good and bad habits from observing their supervisor/manager’s actions. If you do not follow the rules by coming in late or doing things which you are not supposed to, other professionals may do the same. Always practice what you preach.

Teaching should be planned well in advance. This can be done by preparing a written outline of the lesson to be presented to the students. The students will then have the opportunity to not only read the entire outline but also follow what the supervisor/manager has to say and possibly make personal notes on the outline sheet.

IX. Types of Training

In a working situation, you may use a variety of training techniques in order to teach the various roles, tasks, and functions of the employees. Training may consist of classroom work, on-the-job work, a mixture of classroom and on-the-job work, video-recorded sessions, closed-circuit TV presentations, films, programmed textbook instruction, online lessons, and so on. The type of training should fit the needs of the job and the types of individuals who will be utilizing the training material. In all cases, the best form of training consists of a formal presentation backed by informal presentations, field training and experience, evaluation of what has been achieved, and finally retraining when necessary. Frequently, a job can be broken down into its many component parts and taught through those parts. Following this, it might be advantageous to reteach or review the whole task.

X. On-the-Job Development

On-the-job employee development is based on the ultimate goals of the organization and what the organization is trying to achieve with a given employee.

Employee development consists of

  1. Allowing the individual to assist the supervisor/manager in certain situations.
  2. Giving the individual an opportunity to obtain further formal schooling by means of financial support for classes in technical schools and universities or by means of financial support for students who work on self-study courses or courses delivered electronically.
  3. Providing the motivated individual with special in-service courses that can be taken within the organization.
  4. Providing the motivated individual an opportunity to carry out assignments other than those usually done.
  5. Assigning the individual certain specific low-level supervisory or management tasks that are closely supervised by the first-line supervisor/manager.
  6. Coaching the individual on how to improve himself or herself in various areas.
  7. Providing job rotation so the individual gets a better understanding of what is occurring in the overall organization.
  8. Sending the individual to specific short-term courses to learn specific bodies of knowledge.

XI. Off-the-Job Development

The motivated employee can achieve self-improvement by going to technical schools, colleges, attending short courses, taking courses delivered electronically, or seeking other types of training individually. Obviously, as the organization watches the individual develop from his or her own efforts, the company should then step in and provide the necessary support to turn off-the-job development into on-the-job development.

XII. Supervisor/Manager Training and Development

The intended end result of this course is to teach you how to become a good supervisor/manager and how to develop into a potential upper-level manager. Supervision is a learned skill, not a born trait. It is true that some individuals have great leadership abilities and use these abilities very effectively even though they may never have had formal training in leadership skills. However, for most of us, we became or will become supervisor/managers because we were or are good technically.

We hope to become upper-level managers because we are good supervisor/managers, and yet we may not have all the skills needed for supervision or management. Supervisor/manager training and development should include all the 18 topical lessons covered in the Management and Supervisory Practices for Environmental Professionals, Volumes 1 and 2. When you have completed these courses successfully and have practiced many of the practical techniques which have been presented, you should be a better supervisor/manager and will have moved toward becoming an upper-level manager.

XIII. What to Tell a New Employee

 

Once the new employee has been hired and is going through preliminary orientation by the personnel department, it is then necessary for the supervisor/manager to sit down with the new employee and explain the many things that must be done on the new job. The way in which the supervisor/manager handles the new employee may affect the work that he or she will do while working for the organization. The supervisor/manager should be cordial, friendly, and helpful. In discussions with the new employee, the supervisor/manager or other designated persons should cover the following major points:

  1. How the employee will be paid, when he or she will be paid, what are the pay deductions, and what can you anticipate as your total net pay, exclusive of overtime.
  2. The work hours, when the days start and finish, the length of the lunch period, and when breaks are allowed.
  3. How overtime pay or compensatory time for overtime is given.
  4. Explain how time cards or check-in sheets are used, where they are located, and when used.
  5. How the employee should report sick leave, how much sick leave employees are entitled to, and how it may be used. Excessive sick leave will be investigated.
  6. Problems and penalties concerning lateness.
  7. Where employees can find the various personal facilities such as showers, bathrooms, and locker rooms.
  8. Where the first-aid facilities are located.
  9. How and to whom accidents should be reported.
  10. What the basic fire rules are and how they are carried out.
  11. Understanding of all procedures pertaining to the use and care of personal protective equipment.
  12. What the basic safety rules are and how they are carried out.
  13. What is expected of a new employee and what can be expected of the supervisor/manager and the employer.
  14. Where the new employee will be working.

It is then necessary to introduce the new employee to fellow employees and to show him or her where all the necessary supplies are. The employee should also be given copies of the necessary rules and regulations, and policies and procedures concerning the job and the overall organization.

The new employee should then be started on the training program. It is important that someone explain the training program, how it operates, and what the employee is expected to learn from it.

Finally, it is essential to inform the individual of the length of probationary period, including how frequently and in what manner evaluations will be made.

XIV. Training Methods

The employee may be taught in any of the following ways:

  1. Individual instruction, where the supervisor/manager works with the individual on a specific skill or set of skills.
  2. Group instruction, where the supervisor/manager or trainer gives basic facts concerning the job, tells the importance and reasons for a new method, and then may follow up with individual instruction or simply have the group start to work on the new technique.
  3. Lecture, where basic or supplementary information is given to the individual.
  4. Demonstration, where a person is able to see how something is carried out and then has an opportunity to practice it himself or herself.
  5. Conference, where supervisor/managers and administrators attempt to resolve problems. A conference may also be used for an individual to solve a specific problem such as lateness.
  6. Meetings, where there is an exchange of information and ideas between individuals. Meetings are usually used at supervisory-, upper-level management, or professional levels.
  7. Written instructions, in a clear and concise manner. These instructions are usually used to set forth policies and procedures.
  8. Oral instructions, which may be on a one-to-one or a one-to-many basis. The oral instruction attempts to achieve an immediate response.
  9. Teaching machines, where the individual obtains bits of information in a programmed manner, is tested on these bits of information, and then moves on.
  10. Self-study courses, where the individual has an opportunity to learn on his or her own, use the material which is presented, practice with the material, and attempt to use the new information in work-related situations.
  11. Teaching modules presented by various organizations and governmental units and computer-assisted.
  12. Webinars where experts typically discuss single topics and present the material in such a way that the individual is able to learn it and utilize it appropriately.

XV. Apprentice Training

Apprentice training is a useful means of teaching someone on-the-job skills and includes

  • The novice learning a technical skill such as plumbing or electricity under a registered individual who has experience.
  • Student teachers put into the classroom under the guidance of experienced teachers.
  • Students involved in an internship or practicum concept.

 

An internship is the best way to prepare students for the professional field. Using environmental health as an example, and utilizing the Environmental Health Internship Program developed at Indiana State University in 1969 on a grant from the United States Public Health Service, the following standards are recommended to make the program operationally successful:

  1. The internship coordinator or director should be highly skilled within the professional field and should have had many years of practical professional experience before assuming this position.
  2. The internship coordinator or director should have full responsibility for obtaining all paid internships, which should meet the standards established for a professional experience for the student. The coordinator or director will make all assignments of internships based on the skill level of the students. This should include a variety of actual fieldwork under close supervision by the professionals in the field.
  3. The internship coordinator or director should make field visits and spend at least a day supervising each student’s internship program site to set up their special project. The special project must be the resolution of a problem or gathering of data for an actual problem in the field approved by the internship program. The study and report will be of significance to the professionals there and must be presented orally and in writing to them. It also must be presented in writing to the internship coordinator or director. This will constitute part of the student’s grade for the internship. The remainder of the grade will be based on evaluations done by site supervisors and the internship coordinator or director. This type of mentorship by a professor for a student will be of greatest significance to the student for many years to come.
  4. Each of the internships should be a minimum of 10 weeks and if possible 15 weeks. While two internships at different programs are for each student of greatest value, as it was at Indiana State University, it is recognized that there may be situations where only one will be possible.
  5. Students going on internship must have completed all of the basic courses that will prepare them for this experience.
  6. The internship teaches students not only the practical application of what is being learned in the classroom and laboratory, but also professionalization including proper dress code, being on time and prepared to work, a sense of enthusiasm for the field, future contacts for jobs and other types of assistance, how to communicate with different types of people in a variety of situations, etc.

Any time that a person has an opportunity to have a one-on-one experience with someone who has been in the professional field, such as in the internship, the person becomes far more skilled and a much better employee when he/she enters their profession.

XVI. Summary

We have learned in previous lessons that the supervisor/manager must be able to communicate with the professionals working for him/her, and now, we are learning that a major part of this communication is training adults, who may learn differently than children. Adults bring to the learning sessions their emotions, their prejudices, their own wants and desires, their years of experience, whether correct or incorrect for certain situations, their interest, and their ability to quickly absorb information that may not be familiar to them.

The lesson describes and teaches about the many subjects that the supervisor/manager should know about being a teacher including the reasons for training; the supervisor/manager’s responsibility for training; learning theory and training; teaching suggestions; types of training; on-the-job development; off-the-job development; the supervisor/manager’s training and development; training methods; and apprentice and internship training.

Most training is task oriented to solve specific types of problems, and it is necessary to utilize Best Practices where appropriate and the competencies which are required to resolve the problem. The teacher has to be extremely well informed and teach these competencies, including the tasks related to them, to the employees in such a manner that they will be accepted and utilized. They can only do this effectively if they first test the employee’s knowledge and skills in solving the specific problems needed to satisfy the goals and objectives of programs and the department.

Development was described as the concept of enhancing and nurturing of the skills, knowledge, attitude, and enthusiasm of the individual, utilizing various types of training methods including the highly successful mentorship and the use of paid internships.

The lesson emphasizes the necessity for the supervisor/manager to be extremely well prepared, understand all facets of training and the jobs which are being done by the professionals working for them, and able to communicate in an appropriate manner the necessary information to upgrade the skills and knowledge of the individuals to meet the competencies which will satisfy the best practices in solving problems and making programs successful to avoid environmental degradation and promote the good health of the citizens.

Lesson 3 Case Problem 1

The Supervisor/Manager as a Teacher

Harvey Bligh, the manager of the Sharon Hill Waste Water Treatment Facility, felt that his major task was to control his employees. He had of course taken numerous management courses and knew that training was one of his functions. He therefore divided the various operations in the plant into specific jobs and instructed his employees, Jill Clapp and Matt Starr, to become trainers and quickly teach their people the right way of doing things. Jill and Matt had only been recently promoted to supervisor/managers and were not skilled in jobs other than their own. They took on their boss’s attitude toward training and decided to put on a limited number of training sessions based on some readings in each area of concern. They expected each employee to absorb the material rapidly and to increase their performance within the next 30 days. Further, this was a one-time deal and would not be repeated, since training, in fact, was probably a waste of time. The sessions were set up in the cafeteria around the lunch hour.

  1. How was Harvey Bligh’s attitude reflected by Jill Clapp and Matt Starr? What should Jill and Matt know about the various jobs before they started their training effort?
  2. What was wrong with their approach to teaching?
  3. Are all people created equal in their ability to absorb material?
  4. What kind of feedback should a supervisor/manager get after a training session? Is retraining necessary?

ANSWER SHEET

LESSON 3 CASE PROBLEM 1

The Supervisor/Manager as a Teacher

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If you need additional paper, insert it into the book so it will be your resource guide for the future.

Lesson 3 Case Problem 2

A Manager’s Philosophy

Harold Barnwell, the Administrator of the Cherry Isles Nursing Home, had a philosophy concerning the training of new nursing personnel. He felt that they had gone to school and therefore should be able to deal with the various problems related to the elderly, their families, and the organization. He felt that it was only necessary to advise them concerning the policies of the home related to absenteeism, lateness, and insubordination. If necessary, when new techniques were introduced, a lecture would suffice. After all, they were here to provide a place for the elderly to live. During the last three years since he became the administrator, numerous people resigned and others were fired. Although the bottom line showed that the institution was profitable, the number of complaints from patients and families had increased sharply and an investigation was going to be conducted by the State Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. What do you think about Harold Barnwell’s concept of training?
  2. Why are so many people resigning and being fired?
  3. What has caused the State Department of Health and Human Services to react to this situation?
  4. How would you organize a proper training program for existing and new personnel?

ANSWER SHEET

LESSON 3 CASE PROBLEM 2

A Manager’s Philosophy

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If you need additional paper, insert it into the book so it will be your resource guide for the future.

Practical Exercises

You may do any two or more of these items:

  1. Observe employees who have not received formal training. Recognize that they have learned the skills of the job anyway, even though the skills may have been learned improperly.
  2. Set up a training course for your employees in a specific area. Make use of teaching tools, demonstrations, illustrations, and experiments. Allow the employees to participate in the actual work.
  3. Utilize the 15 major items under learning theory and training in your lesson discussion. Evaluate a previously given training program to see if these items have been followed.
  4. Utilizing the learning theories mentioned in #3 above, develop an in-service training course.
  5. Read the material in the “Lesson Discussion” section on how to be a good teacher and utilize these items in your next training course. Then, evaluate the training course to determine which of the items were not carried through properly and which of the items were. Enjoy your strengths and improve on your weaknesses.
  6. The next time you work with an individual in a teaching situation or any situation, use the good techniques outlined in the “Lesson Discussion” section.
  7. Evaluate your company’s on-the-job development process based on the eight major items listed in your “Lesson Discussion” section. Determine your company’s weaknesses and strengths.
  8. When working with a new employee, use the 13 major items listed in the lesson. Determine after your training session whether or not each of the 13 items has been explained clearly and whether the employee understood the material and, of course, ultimately became relaxed.
  9. Evaluate the training methods used in your company based on the ten training items listed in the “Lesson Discussion” section.

LESSON 3 PRACTICAL EXERCISES ANSWER SHEET

Do two exercises and number them. Use additional paper if necessary.

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If you need additional paper, insert it into the book so it will be your resource guide for the future.

Self-Testing Examination #3

True–False Questions (Correct Answers Appear on Page 95)

  1. Training is the process of developing qualities in people that will make them more productive.

1.____

  1. Development is more specific than training.

2.____

  1. Management development focuses on general decision-making.

3.____

  1. To make training successful, the session should be well planned and simple.

4.____

  1. The supervisor/manager imparts his/her knowledge and skills to an employee through the role as a teacher.

5.____

  1. Employees will learn whether or not you train them.

6.____

  1. Self-taught employees may have more problems in relearning correct methods than new employees have in learning them initially.

7.____

  1. Training is frequently used when there are a large number of absences or there are too many complaints and grievances.

8.____

  1. The training of new employees and the retraining of old employees is the primary responsibility of the company manager.

9.____

  1. The supervisor/manager tests the employee’s knowledge by using written examinations.

10.____

  1. The new employee is faced with a considerable amount of uncertainty. A supervisor/manager should relieve some of these anxieties by explaining all of the major areas of concern for a new employee.

11.____

  1. The supervisor/manager should never inform the employee of the length of his or her probationary period.

12.____

  1. Individual instruction is a highly satisfactory means of training a new employee.

13.____

  1. Conferences may be used to handle specific problems such as lateness. The conference becomes a teaching method.

14.____

CASE PROBLEM 1 ANSWERS

Supervisors/Managers Are Teachers

  1. Harvey Bligh’s attitude was duplicated by Jill and Matt. Since they were new supervisor/managers without training or experience, it was natural for them to adopt his attitude and management style.
  2. They needed to know the job skills for each position in order to present training meetings and answer questions.
  3. They did not have adequate knowledge about the subject. They assumed that the employees would all learn at the same rate and understand the material the first time they learned it. They also expected changes to be made within 30 days, whereas training may consist of repeated experiences. Follow-up is essential to implement change. The selection of the meeting place and time was poor.
  4. No. People learn at different rates. It takes some people a long time to learn something new, but once they understand, it they are very good at it. Others may learn quickly and adapt to new changes quickly.
  5. The employees should be able to demonstrate the new information within a short period of time. Immediately after a training session, a supervisor/manager should get either a negative or positive feeling from the employees by their actions and attitudes.
  6. Retraining is necessary.

Case Problem 2 Answers

A Manager’s Philosophy

  1. Harold Barnwell has the wrong idea about training. The nurses received only minimum training in some areas during school and would benefit from additional orientation and learning specific skills. Learning to deal with the elderly and their families is developed from experience and on-the-job training. Demonstrations and hands-on experience are essential for teaching new nursing skills and procedures.
  2. People are being fired because they are not following the policies and procedures of the nursing home. They were never taught the correct ones. People are resigning because they do not know what is expected of them and they are afraid of being fired. This is a very stressful situation.
  3. Patients and families have complained to the state because there is a lack of good patient care, while profits continue to grow.
  4. Orientation of new personnel should include information specific to geriatric nursing, customer relations, dealing with families, and the organization’s philosophy, goals, and objectives. Continue to improve on present personnel policies and procedures and present them to the staff periodically. In-service programs should be used to explain new techniques. This could be done through lectures, hands-on experience, video, and demonstrations.

ANSWERS TO LESSON 3 SELF-TESTING EXAMINATION

If your answer is incorrect, go back to the material and determine why your answer is incorrect.

  1. T
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. T
  6. T
  7. T
  8. T
  9. F
  10. F
  11. T
  12. F
  13. T
  14. T

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