Drug Delivery Using Aerosols: Challenges and Advances in Neonatal Pediatric Subgroup

Authored by: Surovi Saikia , Aparoop Das , Yashwant Pathak

Handbook of Lung Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

Print publication date:  October  2021
Online publication date:  October  2021

Print ISBN: 9780367490676
eBook ISBN: 9781003046547
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781003046547-45

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Abstract

Pediatric patients are frequently administered aerosolized drugs for facilitating mucus clearance, preventing and treating infections, enhancing pulmonary blood flow, etc., to lessen airway inflammation, increase bronchospasm, etc. In infants, the estimation of aerosol efficacy is tedious for clinicians due to lack of objective measurement techniques. They have short intestinal transit time and surface area, slow gastric emptying and immaturity in transporting, lack of well-formed skin barrier, poor respiratory function, etc., which are crucial for oral drug delivery. Also, the various challenges and difficulties associated with infants for aerosol delivery are discussed in detail as compared to adults. Issues of aerosol therapy which might lead to infants receiving a considerably greater amount of aerosolized drug per kilogram of body weight are also detailed. Usually delivery efficiency of aerosol to infant lungs is low and variable, and in many cases, a mouthpiece or a tight-fitting aerosol mask is tolerated poorly by infants, resulting in thrashing, crying, and squirming. Further, the challenges and various considerations for neonatal aerosol applications, including the side effects, are discussed, covering the improvements in aerosol therapies.

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