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Biomonitoring, Monitoring, Sampling, and Testing

Authored by: Frank R. Spellman

Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations

Print publication date:  June  2020
Online publication date:  May  2020

Print ISBN: 9780367481681
eBook ISBN: 9781003038351
Adobe ISBN:


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In January, we take our nets to a no-name stream in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia to do a special kind of macroinvertebrate monitoring—looking for “winter stoneflies.” Winter stoneflies have an unusual life cycle. Soon after hatching in early spring, the larvae bury themselves in the streambed. They spend the summer lying dormant in the mud, thereby avoiding problems like overheated streams, low oxygen concentrations, fluctuating flows, and heavy predation. In later November, they emerge, grow quickly for a couple of months, and then lay their eggs in January.

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