Imaging Deep in the Brain with Wavefront Engineering

Authored by: Roarke Horstmeyer , Maximillian Hoffmann , Haowen Ruan , Benjamin Judkewitz , Changhuei Yan

Handbook of Neurophotonics

Print publication date:  May  2020
Online publication date:  May  2020

Print ISBN: 9781498718752
eBook ISBN: 9780429194702
Adobe ISBN:


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Typically, we cannot see directly into or through biological tissue. The cellular structures comprising tissue are heterogeneous and exhibit a spatially varying refractive index. When light interacts with this varying refractive index it tends to scatter in many directions. This uncontrollable scattering subsequently causes tissue to appear turbid. The effect of scattering can be observed both with our own eyes, which cannot see through our own hands, for example, as well as with microscopes, which cannot form clear images of structures buried within most living organisms. The problem of optical scattering in tissue is particularly familiar within the field of neurophotonics, where it limits the depth at which the experimentalist can gain insights into activity inside the brain using optical tools.

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