Coral Reef: Ecology and Conservation

Authored by: Graham E. Forrester

Encyclopedia of Natural Resources

Print publication date:  July  2014
Online publication date:  June  2014

Print ISBN: 9781439852583
eBook ISBN: 9781351043847
Adobe ISBN:


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Modern coral reefs are found in shallow, nutrient-poor waters within 30° north or south of the equator. Although they underlay only 0.1% of the ocean’s surface area, coral reefs provide food for millions of people, income from tourism, and other critical ecosystem services. Over the past two hundred years, coral reefs have changed dramatically from local human influences such as run-off, pollution, and overfishing. More recently, they have come under severe threat from climate changes, which have immediate effects on corals via rising temperatures and the increasing acidity of seawater.

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