Pollution: Point and Non-Point Source Low-Cost Treatment

Authored by: Sandeep Joshi , Sayali Joshi

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management

Print publication date:  December  2012
Online publication date:  December  2012

Print ISBN: 9781439829271
eBook ISBN: 9781351235860
Adobe ISBN:


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Waste degradation, assimilation and recycling are processes of the ecosystem cycle in a natural environment. But in a human environment, accumulation of wastes or chemicals in cities, rural areas or agricultural environments leads to the deterioration of water, air, and soil quality—and, in turn, overall healthiness and livability. It can be restored by accelerating or reseeding the wastes or receiving water bodies using various cultures. It is evident that waste treatment facilities are focused on infrastructure and machinery rather than on waste treatment processes. Hence, waste treatment processes and not the construction and building of wastewater treatment facilities should be the central theme of economic investment. Ecotechnological treatment systems are more focused on integrated bio-phytoremediation of wastes and ecological re-recycling of energy and matter in the ecosystems. With this ecosystem approach, the non-utilizable residues—which are generated more in conventional systems—are missing from ecotechnological treatment systems. These residues get assimilated in various trophic levels of the food chain. That makes the ecotechnological systems more effective in terms of real space requirement, carbon and nitrogen emissions, and return on investment. In this entry, various ecotechnological applications from the past centuries are discussed, along with innovations, practical applications, and ecological and economic bases from the last few decades.

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